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姜永志,男(1984---),汉族,内蒙古通辽人,西北师范大学心理学专业硕士毕业,内蒙古民族大学教育科学学院教师,主要从事心理学基本理论、本土与文化心理,民族与社会心理学教学科研工作。

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人际关系“差序格局”的流动构建机制  

2010-05-09 21:42:28|  分类: 心理学学术研究 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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论文题目:人际关系“差序格局”的流动构建机制

作  者:敬一鸣

年  级:2006硕

指导教师:王登峰

研究方向:人格与社会心理学

关键词: 际关系 差序格局 关系发展 本土研究

摘  要:

“差序格局”意指中国人的人际关系结构具有亲疏远近以及上下尊卑的区分。本研究的主要目的便是以杨中芳的本土关系发展理论为基础,通过实证的手段,从微观互动的角度对“差序格局”的流动构建机制/模式(包括人际情感的滋长机制、人际情感对关系状况的推进机制以及差序关系的内涵发展趋势)进行检验。本研究共包括了三个分研究。

在研究一中,作者通过系统的操纵目标关系他人在血缘远近(直系亲属/亲戚/朋友)及交往经验多寡(交往经验最多/交往经验较少)上的差异,并由被试根据自身的生活经验将目标人物予以具体化,然后在此基础上收集了被试对两人之间的关系状况的各种评定。研究结果验证了:(1)人际情感的滋长是在工具交往满意的基础上,随交往频率的增加而实现的;(2)人际情感是差序关系发展中的关键因素,这体现在:一方面,人际情感越大则两人的关系状况越亲近,关系的义务性也就越大;另一方面,关系双方惟有在工具交换满意的基础上增进了人际情感,关系状况才能更亲近。

在研究二中,作者在研究一的基础上,通过简化既定关系背景(简化为直系亲属关系/朋友关系)以及更新/加入规范关系成分测量与人际信任测量,对有关问题进行了更为深入的检验。研究结果不但重复了研究一的主要结果,还进一步表明:(1)人际信任是工具交换满意度、交往时间及交往频率影响人际情感的中介变量,亦即人际情感滋长的前提;(2)工具交换如果不能晋升到“真情”交流,则说明个体对关系他人缺乏信任。在这种情况下,关系的工具性越高,人际信任的程度越低,而两人的关系也就越疏远;(3)随着交往经验的增长,个体在关系中愿意履行多大义务将越来越依据人际情感的厚薄,而越发淡漠既定的关系义务要求。此外,血缘远近对人际信任的影响也将随交往经验的增长而减小。

在研究三中,作者在上述两个研究的基础上,进一步检验了交往经验多寡对情感性及上下尊卑影响关系义务性大小的调节作用。检验表明,随着交往经验的增长,个体在关系中愿意履行大多义务将越发依据人际情感的厚薄,而越发淡漠“尊尊”规范的要求。

本研究的主要意义在于,通过上述检验结果,杨中芳本土关系发展理论的核心主张首次得到了系统的验证,而“差序格局”的微观流动构建机制也首次得到了实证的揭示。

Keyword:Interpersonal relations, Differential mode of association, relationship development, Indigenous psychology

Abstract:

The “differential mode of association” refers to the differential nature of Chinese personal relations which are discriminated and treat differentially according to the relational closeness and social distance. The primary goal of the current study is that, it will empirically examine the fluid constructive mechanism of the “differential mode of association” in perspective of micro-level social interaction (including the development mechanism of interpersonal affection, the key role of interpersonal affection in the relationship development and the developmental trend of the nature of differential relations) based on Z. Yang’s indigenous Chinese relationship development theory. The current study includes three sub-studies.

In study 1, through systematically manipulating blood-distance (lineal relatives/collat-

eral relatives/friends) and the quantity of interaction experiences (gain the most /gain relatively few) of targets-other-in-relations, and require participants to specify targets based on their own experiences, the experimenter obtains the participants’ evaluation of the quality of specific dydadic relations. The findings verify that: (1) the satisfaction of instrumental exchange is the necessary foundation of interpersonal affection which can increase with more interactive frequency; (2) interpersonal affection plays a key role in relationship development. This can be illustrated as, on one hand, more affection indicates more close overall relationship quality and more relationship obligation fulfillment; on the other hand, relationship will be advanced only if instrumental exchange could provide the base for affection development.

In study 2, based on study 1, the experimenter examines corresponding issues more penetratingly through simplifying ascribed relation setting (simplified as lineal relatives/friends) and renewing/adding normative relational components measurement and interpersonal trust measurement. The findings not only replicate what have found in study1, but also further indicate: (1) the interpersonal trust is the mediator of the satisfaction of instrumental exchange, interactive duration and frequency on interpersonal affection, that is it is the precondition of affection development; (2) if instrumental exchange can not provide any base for affection communication, it suggests that the individual do not trust his/her relational party. In this case, the more instrumental the relation, the more distrustful and distant the connection; (3) with interaction experiences’ cumulation, the individual will more prefer to fulfill relational obligation according to the interpersonal affection instead of conforming to the normative obligation requirement. Additionally, the influence of blood-distance on interpersonal trust will also be weakened with the cumulation of interaction experiences.

In study 3, based on the above 2 studies, the experimenter further examine the moderating effect of the quantity of interaction experiences on the relationship between affection, social distance and relational obligation. The findings reveal that, along with interaction experiences cumulation, the individual will more prefer to fulfill relational obligation according to the interpersonal affection instead of following the requirement of “obey the superior”.

The main contribution of the current study is that, though the above findings, the core arguments of Z. Yang’s indigenous Chinese relationship development theory are verified systematically for the first time, as well as the micro-level fluid constructive mechanism of the “differential mode of association”.

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