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姜永志心理博客(Muddy)

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姜永志,男(1984---),汉族,内蒙古通辽人,西北师范大学心理学专业硕士毕业,内蒙古民族大学教育科学学院教师,主要从事心理学基本理论、本土与文化心理,民族与社会心理学教学科研工作。

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基因与人性  

2010-05-09 21:45:24|  分类: 心理学学术会议 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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论文题目:基因与人性

作  者:孔宪铎

年  级:2004博

指导教师:王登峰

研究方向:人格与社会心理学

关键词: 基因 人性 人格 文化 环境

摘  要:

基因与人性,是跨学科的讨论题目,基因是生命科学近半个世纪以来研究最集中和进展最快速的学科,而人性又是人文和社会科学家讨论最久和最为关注的议题。研究基因与人性,是因为我身为生命科学家而对人性有深厚的兴趣和体验,把这两门学科合在一起研究像是用现代最先进的技术去挖掘古代最老的宝藏,能在生命科学和人文科学间搭一座桥梁,也是一项值得一提的贡献。

从1953年发现DNA的结构到2000年完成“人类基因图谱计划”并公布了人类基因图谱的草图,只用了四十多年的时间,这一个被誉为生物界的“登月”壮举,对人类自身的了解,迈进了一大步。下一步就是要在人性上,也会解决一些久悬的问题。因之,现在是研究基因与人性的最佳时期。

人性是古今人文和社会科学研究的热门主题。人性是善是恶,中西有别,各执一词。在中国,人们所相信的仍是“人之初,性本善”,而在西方社会,则诚信人性是恶的,人生下来就有罪恶。

基因的单位是DNA分子,它寄居在我们每个细胞之中,人体内平均是由1000万亿个细胞组成,而每个细胞内都保存有该人体DNA的一套完整的拷贝,DNA在结构上的双螺旋可以一分为二,产生两个模版,然后一代一代的周而复始,一代一代的相传下去。

本文率先为基因建立了天性与习性的特点,更进一步的指出,是基因的天性和习性形成了人的天性与习性。所谓“天赋的人性”就是来自基因,是基因的自我复制的动力成为所有生物,包括人类生存、繁殖和进化的原动力。

目前,在研究人性/人格基因的鉴定上,颇有收获,并证明了在基因与人性/人格上,有因果关系。本文是在研究基因与人性下,探讨基因与人性,基因与人格,基因与文化,基因与环境的因果关系,并从基因的角度上来分析中国的人性论,特别指出与中国文化相悖的性恶论是正确的。孟子的性善论,指出人的习性,不是天赋的人性,不能立足。

本文提出下列七个论点支持以上的结论:

从人文社会学的理论上

从生命科学的基因观点上

从现代人文、社会学家的观点上

从实际生活的体验中

从中国历史记载的人和事上

从中外华人性情上

从天赋人性的定义上

本文提出在基因与人性关系上,具有前瞻性的一些问题,很快就会得到答案。由于目前在基因的研究上的进步之速,规模之大,涉及之广,已是史无前例,现在分析一亿个基因的片段,比以前分析一百个更容易,更便宜,将来可能有很多昔日认为是由教养而来的人性/行为,实际上是由基因主导的。这也是本论文研究基因与人性的原因与目的。

Keyword:Genes, Human Nature, Personality, Culture, Environment

Abstract:

Gene and human nature is an intertwined topic. In the field of bioscience, genomics is a heavily researched topic, progressing fastest in the last half century. Humanity has been considered for endless generations, attracting most attention from anthropologists and sociologists. The reason I study gene and human nature is because I, as a bio-scientist, am deeply interested in and have profound experience of human nature. Study these two fields is like dredging up the oldest treasures using the most advanced technology. I believe that bridging bio-science with humanities is a worthy contribution.

From when the DNA structure was first discovered in 1953 to the completion of the “Human Genome Project” and the announcement of the Working Draft for the Human Genome in 2000; it has taken little more than 40 years. The accomplishment is considered as epic an achievement as the moon-landing in the field of biology. This has made great progress in understanding ourselves. The next step is to solve the longstanding issue of “human nature”. Therefore, now is the best time to study Gene and Human nature.

Human nature has been a hot topic in the human and social science field throughout human history. Is human nature evil or good? The West and China have different views. In China, people believe “By nature, all human beings are kind”, whereas in the western Society, human beings are believed to be evil from birth.

The basic genetic unit is a DNA molecule. It resides in every cell of our bodies. On the average, a human body consists of over 100 billion cells, and each cell maintains a complete copy of the person’s own DNA. DNA’s Double helix structure can be divided into two, thus generating two templates, and being reproduced once and once again through generations.

This article is the first to establish characteristics of the Nature and Nurture of the gene. Furthermore, it points out that the nature and nurture of the gene determines a human’s nature and nurture. The so called “God given human nature” comes from the gene. The replication of gene is the force behind the ability of all living creatures, including human beings, to sustain, reproduce and evolve.

To date, there have been significant achievements in the study of human nature and human personality; evidence suggests that the gene is related to human nature and personality. This article explores relationships between the gene and human personality, gene and culture, as well as the relationship between the genome and the environment. From a gene perspective, it can be held that the western view of human nature theory, which is contrary to the Chinese counterpart, is correct. The “good human nature” theory raised by Mencius referred to the nurture rather than the nature, and thus failed to stand firm.

This article provides 7 arguments to support the above conclusions. The arguments are from the following perspectives:

The humanity science theory

Genomics in Bio-science

Modern anthropology and the sociological perspective

Real life experience

Stories in Chinese history

The personalities of Chinese descendants from China and overseas

The definition of “God given human nature”.

There are some forward-thinking questions raised in this article, whose answers can be found very soon. Nowadays the development speed in the study of gene has been so rapid and at such a scale and dimension that to analyze a section of one billion genes takes much less resources and time than to analyze a section of 100 Genes in the past. In the future, human behavior that was considered to be developed from culture in the past may prove to be gene dominated. This is both the reason and the goal of study the relationship between gene and human nature in this article.

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