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姜永志心理博客(Muddy)

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姜永志,男(1984---),汉族,内蒙古通辽人,西北师范大学心理学专业硕士毕业,内蒙古民族大学教育科学学院教师,主要从事心理学基本理论、本土与文化心理,民族与社会心理学教学科研工作。

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老乡观念的社会表征、结构及影响因素研究  

2011-07-03 12:26:43|  分类: 心理学学术研究 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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硕士学位论文             

        
老乡观念的社会表征、结构及影响因素研究

作者:姜永志 
      指导:张海钟教授


摘 要

   在社会急剧转型的今天,随着社会发展,城镇化速度异常加快,农民工大量涌进城市,跨区域流动人口迅猛增加,长期定居或暂居人口也在不断增加,在这一背景下,离家在外寄居者便在心理上产生一种老乡心理,形成一种老乡观念,他们拥有着共同的价值观、生活方式、情感经历、文化背景等一些共享的社会认知结构和社会知识,由此便形成老乡观念,形成中国社会特有的老乡族群。老乡观念是个体在他乡面对不熟悉的情境时,遇到家乡人而在心里产生的对家乡人的语言、文化、情感、生活方式、价值观念、宗教习俗等的一种积极的情感卷入和趋同心理倾向的过程。这种情感卷入和趋同心理倾向往往是以地域的格局化和差序格局化为前提的。因而,老乡观念不是一种心理状态,而是一种心理过程,是涉及到认知、情感的心理过程,其中情感起中介作用,一切心理过程都是以情感为纽带,通过老乡间的情感归属感,最终外显为老乡行为。因此,老乡观念或老乡心理的研究应该成为中国群体心理研究的重要内容,老乡观念或老乡心理的社会表征是如何建构的,老乡观念有着怎样的结构,老乡观念的形成受什么因素影响?这些问题的解决将对我国高度跨域人口流动带来的社会心理危机与社会和谐稳定具有重要现实意义。

   本研究在相关理论基础上,通过半结构访谈、问卷编制、问卷调查等方法,对居民老乡观念社会表征、结构及影响因素进行了研究,首先,通过半结构访谈对居民的老乡观念社会表征进行了访谈,并获得了大量的宝贵数据和资料。随后,利用访谈获得的第一手资料,在以往相关研究的基础上自编《老乡观念问卷》。最后,通过自编的《老乡观念问卷》对甘肃省城乡居民的老乡观念进行调查研究。

综合本研究的结果,得出以下结论:

(1)老乡观念社会表征由中央因素与外围因素组成,中央因素主要由四大要素构成,即身处异地且地域相近(籍贯相同)、语言(方言)相似、情感归属和社会共识,外围因素则主要由地域的心理认知构成。

(2)研究中《老乡观念问卷》具有较好的理论构想,有较好的信度效度,是一个研究老乡观念的有效问卷。

(3)本研究编制了研究老乡观念的量化工具,提出老乡观念是多维的,包括5个因子,分别是语言认同、文化认同、情感归属、习俗认同和地域认同。

(4)研究发现个体的籍贯、职业、年龄和来源地(城乡)都会对老乡观念产生影响,但是性别不对老乡观念造成直接影响。

 

关键词:老乡观念;社会表征;影响因素;结构

Abstract

    With the social development and rapid transformation, the pace of urbanization rapidly accelerate, a large number of migrant workers into the city, cross-regional migrants rapidly increase, permanent residence or transient population has also increased, in this context, Sojourn away from home who have a fellow feeling in the heart and format a fellow psychology, they have the common values, lifestyle, emotional experiences, cultural background and some shared knowledge of social structure and social cognition, as a result, the people will form a unique fellow townsman concept and fellow ethnic in Chinese society. Fellow townsman concepts can be defined as "when the individual face to unfamiliar situations away from home and encounter hometown peoples, who created a positive emotional involvement and convergence of psychological tendencies process on the language, culture, emotions, lifestyle, values, religious practices.” This emotional involvement and convergence of psychological tendencies is often based on the differential mode of association. Thus, the fellow townsman concepts are not a psychological state but a psychological process and related to the cognitive, emotional and mental, and emotion plays an intermediary role, all psychological processes are based on emotion as the link, through the emotion attribution among the fellows and final explicit the behavior of fellows. Therefore, fellow townsman concepts and fellow psychology research should become an important part of group psychological research, how to build fellow townsman concepts or fellow psychology, what structures of fellow townsman concepts have, What affect the formation of fellow townsman concepts? The solution of these problems will have important practical significance for social psychological crisis, social harmony and stability caused by cross-border population movements.

   Based on previous theories, this research will study social representation of fellow townsman concepts, structure and influence factors through semi-structured interviews, Questionnaire, questionnaires and other methods. First, author interviewed to residents and received a lot of valuable data and information; Second, author used the first-hand information which obtained by interviews, research design the "fellow townsman concept Questionnaire"; Finally, author investigated the fellow townsman concept by the self's "fellow townsman concept Questionnaire".

Comprehensive results of this study, the following conclusions were made:

  (1)Social representation of fellow townsman concepts is constituted by the central factors and external factors, central factors constituted mainly by the four elements: Living in different places and region is similar (same origin), language (dialect) is similar, emotion attribution and social consensus. External factors are mainly constituted by the psychological perception of the region.

  (2) In this study, "fellow townsman concept questionnaire" have a good theoretical idea, reliability and validity, it is a valid questionnaires to research fellow townsman concept.

  (3) This study developed a quantitative tool to research the fellow townsman concept, study raised the fellow townsman concept is multidimensional, including the five factors: Linguistic identity, cultural identity, emotion attribution, custom identity and regional Identity.

  (4) Study found that the individual native place, occupation, age and origin (urban and rural) affect the fellow townsman concept, but the gender does not cause a direct impact on the fellow townsman concept.

 

Key words: fellow townsman concept; social representation; influential factors; structure

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